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Environmental Science Engineering Lecture Notes, Sanitary Engineering Class Notes, Free Online Course Materials on Civil Engineering

Environmental Engineering Online Class Notes


Environmental Engineering is the branch of public health engineering which mainly deals to collect, conveyance, treatment and disposal of wastes and maintain such an environment not affect the public health in general.


Types of Sewer | Sewer Types according to Material

Following are types of sewer according to material
  1. Asbestos Cement (AC) Sewer
  2. Brick Sewer
  3. Cement Sewer
  4. Cast iron (CT) Sewer
  5. Steel Sewers
  6. Plastic Sewers.........
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                   The sewers after being laid and jointed are tested for watertight joints and also for correct straight alignment as described below

  1. Test for Leakage
  2. Test for Straightness of Alignment and Obstruction
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The laying of sewer pipe consist of the following steps: 1. Locate the positions of the manhole on the ground along the longitudinal section of the sewer line.......


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The process of absorbing oxygen from air is known as aeration. High amount of O2 is provided in the aeration tank because of high BOD in sewage. There are three methods for aeration in activated sludge process 1.Diffused Air Aeration 2..........
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Generally there are two types for stormwater runoff 1. Hydrograph method It is used for longer water sheds generally greater than 3km2.  2. Rational method Rational method is very handy method for the calculation of storm water in urban areas. This basic formula for this approach is  Q = CiA........
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Activated sludge may be define as the sludge which settled down after the sewage has been agitated freely in the presence of abundant atmospheric oxygen. Activated sludge contains a large number of aerobic bacteria and other organism and acts as a fertilizing constituent (agent)...........
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Trickling Filter also known as percolating or sprinkling filter is like a well having depth up to about 2m and filled with some granular media. The sewage is sprinkled over the media which percolates through filter media and is collected through the under-drainage system.....................
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The secondary biological wastewater treatment is required to remove the soluble and colloidal organic matters which remain after primary treatment. As it is mostly biological process also called biological treatment.


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It consists of removal of floating material (like dead animals, tree branches, papers, plastics, wood pieces, vegetables peels etc) and also the heavy settleable inorganic solids (grit etc). Preliminary treatment includes: Screening,Comminutors, Grit Removal, Skimming Tank etc................

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Sewage treatment or Municipal wastewater treatmentis the combination of physical and biological process with chemical process occasionally applied additionally to bring the sewage to such a quality that it is not harmful to human health and environment.

                                                                         
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   Definitions of Environmental Science & Sanitary Engineering, Sanitary Engineering is the ranch of public health engineering dealing with collection, conveyance, treatment and disposal of wastes , Sewage is the waster or foul water of the community conveyed by sewer,Infiltration is the water which has leaked into the sewer from the ground
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Manholes are masonry or RCC chambers constructed at suitable intervals along the sewer lines for providing access into them.
                              
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Mainly it is divided into two categories  1.  Conservancy system/method. It is the system different types of waste/refuse are collected separately and disposed off.  2.  Water carriage system/method. In this system water is used as a medium to carry wastes to the point of final disposal.

                                                                     
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It is the system and infrastructure of collecting, treating and disposal of sewage.  There are three types of sewerage systems.
  1. Separate System
  2. Partially Separated System
  3. Combined System
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